Regular dental check-ups can help bring a few lurking signs of impending oral conditions to notice so that preventive measures can be taken. During your regular check-ups your dentist will be able to check for conditions in the mouth that may put you at risk of developing any tooth decay, gum disease, etc.
One such risk factor is tartar or calculus which is detrimental for the health of your teeth and gums. It cannot be easily removed even after you follow all the oral hygiene measures like brushing and flossing. Professional scaling or cleaning is the only way these mineralised deposits can be removed.
Other risk factors like dry mouth, improper position of teeth, faulty or irritating tooth fillings and dentures, partially impacted wisdom tooth, missing teeth, etc. may be identified and corrected to prevent cavities and/or gum disease, etc. If you are very susceptible to cavities your dentist may also apply protective coatings like dental sealants or fluoride gel on the grooves and fissures of your teeth to prevent decay.
Regular dental check-ups will diagnose such problems in the early stages and help nip them in the bud. If detected early, the initial signs of cavity can be reversed by re-calcification of enamel with fluoride treatment. But if left untreated, it can get larger and affect the dentin and pulp of the tooth. You will then need to get it either filled or get a root canal treatment (RCT) done followed by a restoration of the tooth with a crown. The tooth may also become so damaged that it would be beyond repair needing it to be extracted.